English

Accueil > Sources historiques > Base de données bio-bibliographiques historiques sur les artistes canadiennes > SHANANDITTI, Nancy

Base de données d'artistes

SHANANDITTI, Nancy

Naissance
Red Indian Lake, Newfoundland, 1801
Décès
St. John's, Newfoundland, 1829
Notice biographique
Nancy Shananditti (also known as Nancy April/Nance/Shanawdithit/Shawnawdithit/Shanaditti/Shawnadithit) was a First Nations artist of the Beothuk tribe. The niece of Demasduit (renamed Mary March by her English captors) and Chief Nonosbawsut, Shananditti is often referred to as the last Beothuk because her tribe was exterminated in the early 19th century. Many Beothuks died in battles against European colonizers and other native Canadian tribes while others succumbed to tuberculosis. Shananditti endured many hardships, and several attempts were made on her life. With the exceptions of her mother and her sister, all of her relatives were killed by settlers. In 1823, she, her mother (Doodebewshet), and her sister were captured by English fur traders and later taken to St. John's, where Shananditti worked for Sir John Peyton Jr. as a domestic. While working in Peyton's household, Shananditti was commissioned by the scholar William E. Cormack to create sketches and drawings for the Beothuk Institution, outlining the history and customs of her nearly extinct people. In 1828, the artist presented Cormack with verbal descriptions as well as detailed records and sketches of Beothuk culture. The drawings, only ten of which survive today, depict various elements of Beothuk life, such as living quarters, diet, and religious rituals. One of Shananditti's sketches illustrates an historic encounter between her village and a convoy of English troops, and another drawing records the brutal murder of Beothuk women in 1816. It was through her clearly detailed works that historians such as Cormack preserved and disseminated valuable information about the lost tribe. In 1829, Shananditti passed away after succumbing to tuberculosis.
Médias
Drawing
Lieux de conservation des dossiers et archives
National Gallery of Canada, ON - Library and Archives
Public Record Office of Great Britain
Archive of the United Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, UK
Public Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador
Provincial Resource Library, NL
Centre for Newfoundland Studies Archives
Library and Archives Canada / Bibliothèque et Archives Canada, ON
BIBLIOGRAPHIE

Documents sur l'artiste
"Honouring a Lost Culture." Beaver 86.6 (Dec. 2006/Jan. 2007): 12.
"On This Day." National Post (6 Jun. 2007): AL12.
"Shanawdithit Centre Opens Its Doors: Will Offer Emergency Shelter for Aboriginals." Telegram (5 Dec. 2003): A4.
"Shanawdithit's Obituary." Public Ledger (St. John's, Newfoundland): (12 Jun. 1829).
"Shanawdithit: The Last of the Beothuk People." Windspeaker 21.6 (Sept. 2003): 34.
"Shawnawdithit Obituary." Times (14 Sept. 1829): 5.
"Shedding Some Light on Lost Civilization." Winnipeg Free Press (16 Sept. 2007): D0.
Alexander, David. "Newfoundland's Traditional Economy and Development to 1934." Acadiensis Reader 2 (1988): 11-33.
Assiniwi, Bernard. The Beothuk Saga. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 2001.
Assiwini, Bernard. La saga des Beothuks. Québec: Actes Sud, 2000.
Beckel, Annamarie. All Gone Widdun. St. John's, Newfoundland: Breakwater, 1999.
Berton, Pierre. My Country: The Remarkable Past. McClelland & Stewart, 1976.
Blake, E. "The Beothuks of Newfoundland." Nineteenth Century. 24 (1888): 889-918.
Bonnycastle, Sir Richard H. Newfoundland in 1842. London, England: Henry Colburn, 1842.
Bouchard, Serge & Verdon, Rachel. De remarquables oubliés: contes historiques. Montreal: Radio-Canada, 2005.
Boutilier, Alicia & Tobi Bruce. The Artist Herself : Self-portraits by Canadian Historical Women Artists / L'artiste elle-même : autoportraits de femmes artistes au Canada. Kingston, ONT.: Agnes Etherinton Art Centre. Hamilton: Art Gallery Hamilton, 2015.
Bradford, Clare. Unsettling Narratives: Postcolonial Readings of Children's Literature. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2007.
Brown, Stephen R. "Cormack's Quest (Trip Across Newfoundland, 1822)." Beaver 80.2 (Apr/May 2000): 34.
Brown, Stuart C. "Far Other Worlds and Other Seas: The Context of Claims for Pre-Columbian European Contact With North America." Newfoundland Studies 9.2 (1993): 235-259.
Bryant, Darren & Clark, Penney. "Historical Empathy and 'Canada: A People's History'." Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l'éducation 29.4 (2006): 1039-1063.
Burnham, Dorothy K. To Please the Caribou: Painted Caribou-Skin Coats Worn by the Naskapi, Montagnais, and Cree Hunters of the Quebec-Labrador Peninsula. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1992.
Burrage, H.S. ed. Early English and French Voyages. New York: (1906): 4-24.
Busk, G. "Description of Two Beothuc Skulls." Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 5 (1875): 230-232.
Buss, Helen M. & Clarke, Margaret. Memoirs from Away: A New Found Land Girlhood. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1999.
Cadigan, Sean Thomas. Newfoundland and Labrador: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009.
Carrington, Frederick H. "June 8th, 1829. Interred Nancy, Shanawdithe act. 23, South Side (very probably the last of the aborigines." Parish Register of the Newfoundland Cathedral Newfoundland: 1829.
Chamberlain, A.F. "The Beothuks of Newfoundland." AAR (1905): 117-122.
Chappell, E. Voyage of His Majesty's Ship Rosemond to Newfoundland. London, England: (1818): 69-87.
Clark, Joan. "The Heart of the Beothuk Beats in Splendid Saga (Review)." Globe and Mail (30 Sept. 2000): D16.
Cooper, John H. Beothuk Origins. Edgecomb, Maine: New England Antiquities Research Association, 2007.
Cormack, William Epps. Narrative of a Journey Across the Island of Newfoundland in 1822. London, England: Longmans, 1929.
Cormack, William Epps. "Obituary." London Times (14 Sept. 1829).
Crate, Joan. "Shawnandithit (Last of the Beothuks)." Canadian Literature 124, 125 (1990): 17.
Cuthand, Doug. "Shameful Side to Canada's Cabot Celebration." Star - Phoenix (27 Jun. 1997): A5.
Davidson. Arnold E. Coyote Country: Fictions of the Canadian West. Durham: NC: Duke University Press, 1994.
Devereux, E.J. "The Beothuks of Newfoundland in Fact and Fiction." Dalhousie Law Review 50 (1970).
Dion, Susan D. & Michael R. Braiding Histories: Learning From Aboriginal Peoples' Experiences and Perspectives. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2009.
Down, Heather. A Deadly Distance. Canada: Dundurn, 2007.
Downton, Dawn Rae. Seldom: A Memoir. New York: McClelland & Stewart, 2002.
Edward, Joan. This Is Our Place, This Is Our Home. St. John's, Newfoundland: Breakwater Books, 2006.
Fardy, Bernard D. Demasduit: Native Newfoundlander. St. John's, Newfoundland: Creative Publishers, 1988.
Fisher, Robin & Coates, Kenneth. Out of the Background: Readings on Canadian Native History. Madison, Wisonsin: Copp Clark Pitman, 1988.
Forster, Merna. 100 Canadian Heroines: Famous and Forgotten Faces. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2004.
Francis, R. Douglas; Jones, Richard; Smith, Donald B. Origins: Canadian History to Confederation. Harcourt Canada, 2000.
Friesen, John W. Rediscovering the First Nations of Canada. Madison, Wisconsin: Detselig Enterprises Ltd, 1997.
Friesen, John W. & Virginia Lyons. Canadian Aboriginal Art and Spirituality. Calgary: Detselig Enterprises, 2006.
Gagnon, François-Marc. Hommes effarables et bestes sauvaiges: Images du Nouveau-Monde d'après les voyages de Jacques Cartier. Québec: Boréal, 1986.
Gatschet, Albert Samuel. "The Beothuk Indians." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 22,23,28 (1885-1890):408-24,411-32,1-16.
Gillmor, Don & Turgeon, Pierre. Canada: A People's History, Volume 1. McClelland & Stewart, 2000.
Greenman, E.F. "The North Atlantic and Early Man in the New World." Michigan Archaeologist 6.2 (1960): 19-38.
Greenman, E.F. "The Upper Palaeolithic and the New World." Current Anthropology 4.1 (1963): 41-91.
Gregg, Andrew. "Episode 1, When the World Began." Canada: A People's History. Canada: CBC Television, (2000-2001).
Guy, John. The New World: A Catalogue of an Exhibition of Books, Maps, Manuscripts and Documents, With Transcripts of Five Unpublished Documents Relating to the Early History of the North American Continent. London, England: Lambeth Palace Library, 1957.
Hancock, Pat. The Penguin Book of Canadian Biography for Young Readers: Early Canada. Toronto: Viking, 1999.
Hanrahan, Maura. "Canada's Relationship to Living Aboriginal Peoples Needs Mending." Catholic New Times 24.14 (24 Sept. 2000): 4.
Harding, Les. Damn the Mosquitoes! More Travelers on the Canadian Frontier. Kitchener, Ontario: Upney Ed., 2001.
Hardy, Christian and Ingeborg Marshall. "A New Portrait of Mary March." Newfoundland Quarterly 73.3 (Fall 1977): 25-28.
Harp, E. "An Archaeological Survey in the Strait of Belle Isle Area." AAN 17 (1951): 203-220.
Harrison, Julia Diane & Glenbow Museum. The Spirit Sings: Artistic Traditions of Canada's First People's. McClelland & Stewart, 1987.
Hartland, Sidney E. "Reviews: The Beothucks or Red Indians, The Aboriginal Inhabitants of Newfoundland." Folklore 26.3 (30 Sept. 1915): 330-334.
Hayes, Derek. Historical Atlas of Canada. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 2002.
Hewitt, J.N.B. & Gatschet, Albert Samuel. "Beothukan Family." BBAE 1 (1907): 141-142.
Hewson, John. "Beothuk and Algonkian: Evidence Old and New." International Journal of American Linguistics 34.2 (Apr. 1968): 85-93.
Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada. Ceremony Commemorating Shanawdithit (c. 1801-1829). Ottawa: Parks Canada, 2007.
Holly, Donald. "A Historiography of an Ahistoricity: On the Beothuk Indians." History and Anthropology 14.2 (Jun. 2003): 127-140.
Holly, Donald Jr. "The Beothuk on the Eve of Their Extinction." Arctic Anthropology 37.1 (2000): 79-95.
Holmlund, Mona, et al. Inspiring Women: A Celebration of Herstory. Regina: Coteau Books, 2003.
Horwood, Harold. Newfoundland. Macmillan of Canada, 1969.
Howley, James. The Beothucks or Red Indians, The Aboriginal Inhabitants of Newfoundland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1915.
Howley, Michael. "The Old French Graveyard." Evening Telegram (23 Jun. 1903).
Huneault, Kristina. "Always There: Aboriginal People and the Consolation of Miniature Portraiture in British North America." Art and the British Empire. Ed. Tim Barringer, Geoff Quilley and Doug Fordham Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007: 288-308.
Jenness, Diamond. "Notes on the Beothuk Indians of Newfoundland." BCDM 56 (1929): 36-37.
Klittke, M. "Die Beothuk-Indianer von Neufundland." Aus Allen Weltheilen 25 (1894): 235-247.
Lloyd, T.G.B. "A Further Account of the Beothucs of Newfoundland." Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 5 (1875): 220-230.
Lloyd, T.G.B. "On the 'Beothucs', A Tribe of Red Indians, Supposed to Be Extinct, Which Formerly Inhabited Newfoundland." Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 4 (1874): 21-39.
Lyon, William S. Encyclopedia of Native American Shamanism: Sacred Ceremonies of North America. Michigan: ABC-CLIO, (1998): 4.
Macdougall, A. "The Boeothic Indians." TCI 2 (1891): 98-102.
Major, Kevin. Blood Red Ochre. United States of America: Doubleday Canada, 1984.
Manners, Steven. Ondine's Curse. Vancouver: Beach Holme Publishing, 2000.
Marcotte, Nancy. Ordinary People in Canada's Past. Arnold Publishers, (1990): 125.
Markowitz, Harvey. American Indians, Volume 1. Salem Press, 1995.
Marsh, James H. "Shawnadithit: Last of the Beothuk." Ottawa Citizen (9 Jun. 2003): A2.
Marsh, James H. "Story of the Beothuk Was One of the Saddest in Canadian History." Guardian (9 Jun. 2003): A7.
Marsh, James, ed. Canadian Encyclopedia Online. Historical Foundation, 2009
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com.
Marshall, Ingeborg. A History and Ethnography of the Beothuk. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1996.
Marshall, Ingeborg. "A New Portrait of Mary March." Newfoundland Quarterly 76.1 (1980): 25-28.
Marshall, Ingeborg. "An Unpublished Map Made by John Cartwright Between 1768 and 1773 Showing Beothuck Indian Settlements and Artifacts and Allowing a New Population Estimate." Ethnohistory 24 (1977): 223-249.
Marshall, Ingeborg. "Researching Cormack." Telegram (2 Jan. 1999): 10.
Marshall, Ingeborg. "The Miniature Portrait of Mary March." Newfoundland Quarterly 73.3 (Fall 1977): 5-7.
McCarthy, Mike. "Beothuck Heroine and Second Voyage of Cabot: Newfoundland History in Fiction and Fact." Telegram (6 Jun. 1999): 16.
McDermott, Barb & McKeown, Gail. All About... Famous Canadians from Newfoundland. Edmonton, Alberta: Reidmore Books, 1999.
McGlennen, M. "Shanawdithit, The Last Beothuk." Shenandoah 54.3 (2004): 45-48.
McGrath, Carmelita; Neis, Barbara; Porter, Marilyn. Their Lives and Times: Women of Newfoundland and Labrador: A Collage. Killick Press, 1995.
McGregor, John. "Sketches of Savage Life: Part II." Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country 13.75 (March 1836): 316-323.
http://www.mun.ca/rels/native/beothuk/mcgregor.html.
Meili, Dianne. "Footprints: Shanawdithit." Windspeaker 26.6 (Sept. 2008): 30.
Merritt, Susan E. Her Story: Women From Canada's Past. St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing, 1993.
Miliokas, Nick. "Significant Show of Art." Leader Post (10 Oct. 2002): D3.
Miller, James Rodger ed. Sweet Promises: A Reader on Indian-White Relations in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991.
Milroy, Sarah. "Visual Arts." Globe and Mail (8 Sept. 2001): R19.
Mitchell, John S. "All Gone Widdun ("Asleep"/Died): Was Shawnawdithit Right? A Speculative Approach." Newfoundland Quarterly 93.1 (Fall 1999): 39-41.
Monkman, Leslie. A Native Heritage: Images of the Indian in English-Canadian Literature. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981.
Moore, Christopher. "Colonisation and Conflict: New France and Its Rivals (1600-1760)." The Illustrated History of Canada. Toronto: Lester Publishing, 1991.
Moore, Lisa. "Mi'kmaq Paddy-whack: Skeletons in the Closet." Globe and Mail (29 July 2003): R1.
Morgan, Bernice & Glatt, Anne. Cloud of Bone. Toronto: CNIB, 2008.
Morice, A.G. "Disparus et survivants." Bulletin de la Société de géographie de Québec 20 (1926): 78-94.
Moss, John George. Sex and Violence in the Canadian Novel: The Ancestral Present. McClelland & Stewart, 1977.
Murray, C.A. The Red Indians of Newfoundland. Philadelphia: 1854.
Murray, Sir Charles Augustus. Ottawah, The Last Chief of the Red Indians of Newfoundland: A Romance. London, England: 1848.
Nast, Heidi J. & Pile, Steve eds.. Places Through the Body. New York: Routledge, 1998.
Noad, Joseph. Lecture on the Aborigines of Newfoundland. St. John's, Newfoundland: R.J. Parsons, 1859.
O'Neill, Paul. Legends of a Lost Tribe: Folk Tales of the Beothuk Indians of Newfoundland. Toronto: McLelland & Stewart, 1976.
Pardy, Gar. "You Can't Hold Back the Tide." Ottawa Citizen (29 May 2008): A13.
Pastore, Ralph & Story, G.M. "Shawnadithit." Dictionary of Canadian Biography, 1821-1835. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 6 (1987): 706-709.
Pastore, Ralph Thomas. Shanawdithit's People: The Archaeology of the Beothuks. St. John's, Newfoundland: Atlantic Archaeology, 1992.
Patterson, George. "Beothik Vocabularies." Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 10.2 (1892): 19-32.
Patterson, George. "The Beothiks or Red Indians of Newfoundland." Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 9.2 (1891): 123-171.
Patterson, Lotsee & Snodgrass, Mary Ellen. Indian Terms of the Americas. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, (1994): 204.
Peyton, Amy Louise. Nightingale of the North. St. John's, Newfoundland: The Canada Council/ Conseils des Arts du Canada, 1983.
Pilot, W. & Gray, L.H. "Beothuks." ERE 2 (1910): 501-503.
Pittman, Ken. Shanaditti: Last of the Beothuks. Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 1983.
Polack, Fiona. "Whose Bones?" Canadian Literature 198 (Autumn 2008): 149-152.
Pope, Peter E. "Scavengers and Caretakers: Beothuk/European Settlement Dynamics in Seventeenth-Century Newfoundland." Newfoundland Studies 9.2 (1993): 279-293.
Powers, Bob. Shanawdithit: Last of the Beothuk. St. John's, Newfoundland: H. Cuff Publications, 1987.
Ray, Arthur. "When Two Worlds Met." The Illustrated History of Canada. Toronto: Lester Publishing, (1991): 17-104.
Reimer, Mavis ed. "At Home on Native Land: A Non-Aboriginal Canadian Scholar Discusses Aboriginality and Property in Canadian Double-Focalized Novels for Young Adults." Home Words: Discourses of Children's Literature in Canada. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2008.
Robertson, Esther. The Untrained Nurse. Boston: Angel Guardian Press, 1903.
Rowe, Frederick W. Extinction: The Beothucks of Newfoundland. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1977.
Ryan, D.W.S. "Relics of a Lost Race." Atlantic Guardian 5 (1948): 41-44.
Sack, R.D. Human Territoriality, Its Theory and History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Smyth, Mitchell. "Newfoundland Hunted Its Indians to Extinction." Toronto Star (22 Jun. 1996): G2.
Sparke, Matthew. "Between Demythologizing and Deconstructing the Map: Shawnadithit's New-found-land and the Alienation of Canada." Cartographica 32.1 (1995): 1.
Speck, Frank Gouldsmith. Beothuk and Micmac. New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 1922.
Speck, Frank Gouldsmith. "The Beothuks of Newfoundland." Southern Workman 41 (1913): 559-563.
Stacey, Jean Edwards. "A Magical Place: Devon House on Exploits Islands Is Surrounded by Rustic Beauty and Replete With Colourful Heritage." Telegram (7 May 2001): 9.
Steckley, John. Beyond Their Years: Five Native Women's Stories. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press, 1999.
Stephen, Sid. Beothuck Poems. Ottawa: Oberon Press, 1976.
Steven, Peter. "Canada: A People's History. Episode 1, When the World Began (Review)." Beaver 80.6 (Dec. 2000/Jan. 2001): 46.
Such, Peter. Riverrun. Toronto: Irwin, 1990.
Such, Peter. Vanished Peoples: The Archaic Dorset and Beothuk People of Newfoundland. Toronto: NC Press Ltd, 1968.
Sullivan, J.M. "Acting Naturally: The Model for Gerald Squire's Shawnadithit Sculpture Is an Actress With a Passion for Cabaret." Telegram (9 Aug. 1998): 13.
Sullivan, J.M. "Sculpting Shawnadithit: Gerry Squires Is Working on a Project to Commemorate the Beothuks." Telegram (26 Apr. 1998): 11.
Thompson, Dawn. Writing a Politics of Perception: Memory, Holography and Women Writers in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2000.
Thoms, James R. "The First Newfoundlanders: The Beothucks." The Book of Newfoundland, Volume 3. St. John's, Newfoundland: Newfoundland Book Publishers, (1967): 225-237.
Tompkins, John. "Novel Restores Beothuk Dignity: Twenty-year Labor of Love Documents the Culture and History of a Lost People (Review)." Telegram (7 Jun. 1997): A1.
Totten, Samuel & Bartrop, Paul Robert. Dictionary of Genocide. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, (2008): 393.
Tuck, James A. "Archaeology at Ferryland, Newfoundland." Newfoundland Studies 9.2 (1993): 294-310.
Upton, L.F.S. Micmacs and Colonists: Indian-White Relations in the Maritimes 1713-1867. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1979.
Upton, L.F.S. "The Extermination of the Beothucks of Newfoundland." Canadian Historical Review 58 (1977): 133-153.
Weaver, Jace; Womack, Craig S.; Warrior, Robert Allen. American Indian Literary Nationalism. United States of America: University of New Mexico Press, 2006.
Webber, George. The Last of the Aborigines: A Poem Founded in Facts. St. John's, Newfoundland: 1851.
Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. Current Anthropology, Volume 4. University of Chicago Press, 1963.
Westwater, Martha. "Kevin Major and the Chora Experience." Giant Despair Meets Hopeful: Kristevan Readings in Adolescent Fiction. Edmonton, Alberta: University of Alberta Press, 2000.
Whitby, Barbara. The Last of the Beothuk: A Canadian Tragedy. Canmore, Alberta: Altitude Publishing Canada, 2005.
White, Jeff. The Red Arrow (Songs). Dungannon, Ontario: Jeff White Music, 1997.
White, Marian Frances. Newfoundland and Labrador. Grolier, 1994.
Wilson, William. Newfoundland and Its Missionaries. Halifax: Dakind Metcalf, 1866.
Winter, Keith. Shananditti: The Last of the Beothuks. Vancouver: J.J. Douglas Ltd, 1975.
Wojna, Lisa. Great Canadian Women: Nineteen Portraits of Extraordinary Women. Edmonton, Alberta: Folklore Publishing, 2005.

Rechercher des artistes à partir des sources suivantes: