Accueil > Sources historiques > Base de données bio-bibliographiques historiques sur les artistes canadiennes > SCHAFFER, Mary T. S.

Base de données d'artistes


West Chester, Pennsylvania, 1861
Banff, Alberta, 1939
Notice biographique
Mary T. S. Sch�ffer (n�e Townsend Sharpless) was encouraged by her father, an avid naturalist, to study natural history and flower painting with artist George Lambden. Sch�ffer first visited the Canadian Rockies in 1889 with her husband Dr. Charles Sch�ffer, an amateur botanist. She would spend her summers and most of the fall months in the Rockies, returning to Philadelphia in the winter. In 1903, after the death of her husband, Sch�ffer returned to the Canadian Rockies in order to complete the botanical guide he had begun, with the help of Stewardson Brown, curator at the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences Herbarium. It was during this visit that she developed her skills as a photographer, producing high quality hand painted photographers of her travels in the Rockies. During her lifetime Sch�ffer published a number of significant articles, books and photographs, which mapped, described, and illustrated her experience of the Canadian Rockies. In 1911, she successfully surveyed Maligne Lake, which thanks to her efforts was later made a part of the Jasper National Park. Mary Sch�ffer permanently moved to Banff, Alberta, in 1912, where she married Billy Warren, her former guide and friend of many years. She died in her home in 1939. The most extensive collection of her photographs can be found at the Whyte Museum in Banff.
Lieux de conservation des dossiers et archives
Whyte Museum of the Canadian Rockies, AB - Archives & Library
National Gallery of Canada, ON - Library and Archives
University of Calgary Library, AB
University of British Columbia - Fine Arts Library
Canadian Women Artists History Initiative Documentation Centre, QC

Documents sur l'artiste
"Mrs. Schäffer's Discovery and Survey of Lake Maligne, Canadian Rockies." The Geographical Journal 39.4 (Apr. 1912): 379-381.
Beck, Janice Sanford. No Ordinary Woman: The Story of Mary Schaffer Warren. Calgary, Alberta: Rocky Mountain Books, 2001.
Bialeschki, Deborah. "Mary Schaffer Warren: A Seeker of Untrodden Paths." Sixth Canadian Congress on Leisure Research Proceedings. Waterloo, Ontario: University of Waterloo; Ontario Council on Leisure, 1990.
Bouwsema, Kirstin. "A Passion for Wilderness: Understanding the Mountain Travels of Mary T.S. Schaffer Warren, 1861-1939." Canadian Parks for Tomorrow: 40th Anniversary Conference Proceedings Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary, 2008
Bown, Stephen R., Nicky Brink. "Mountain Woman: When Mary Schaffer Warren Discovered a Mythical Lake in the Rocky Mountains, it was Pristine - until Word got out." The Beaver 87.3 (Jun/Jul 2007): 42-46.
Foran, Jill. Mary Schaffer: An Adventurous Woman's Exploit's in the Canadian Rockies. Canmore, Alberta: Altitude Publications, 2003.
Gironnay, Sophie. "Aventurieres de la photo: Julia Margaret Cameron, Mary Schaffer Warren, Berenice Abbott, Margaret Bourke-White, Diane Arbus." Châtelaine (Sept. 1989): 8-10,12.
Huneault, Kristina. I'm Not Myself at All: Women, Art, and Subjectivity in Canada. Montreal; Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2018.
Kadane, Lisa. "Historic B&B in Home of Pioneering Woman." Calgary Herald 21 Jun. 2003: 5.
Kadane, Lisa. Banff B & B brings Pioneer Woman to 21st-century Visitors: Tarry-A- While National Post 5 Jul. 2003: 3.
Lakritz, Naomi. "Mountain Pioneer did it Her Way." Calgary Herald 16 Jun. 2001: 10.
Lang, Michale. An Adventurous Woman Abroad: the Lantern Slide of Mary T.S. Schaffer. Victoria, British Columbia: Rocky Mountain Books, 2001.
Laviolette, Mary-Beth. A Delicate Art: Artists, Wildflowers and Native Plants of the West. Vancouver: Rocky Mountain Books, 2012.
Lippard, Lucy, Liz Wells (ed). "Doubletake: The Diary of a Relationship with an Image." The Photography Reader. London, England: Routledge, 2003: 343-353.
MacDonald, Colin S. The Dictionary of Canadian Artists. (Volumes 1-8 by Colin S. MacDonald, and volume 9 by Anne Newlands and Judith Parker) Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 2009.
MacFarlane, Lisa, ... [et al.]. "Mary Schaffer's 'Comprehending Equal Eyes.'" Trading Gazes: Euro-American Women Photographers and Native North Americans, 1880-1940. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2003.
Prakash, A. K. Independent Spirit: Early Canadian Women's Art. Buffalo, New York: Firefly Books, 2008.
Reichwein, Pearlann & Lisa McDermott, I.S. MacLaren (ed). "Opening the Secret Garden: Mary Schaffer, Jasper Park Conservation, and the Survey of Maligne Lake, 1911." Culturing Wilderness in Jasper National Park: Studies in Two Centuries of Human History in the Upper Athabasca River Watershed. Edmonton, Alberta: The University of Alberta Press, 2007.
Reid, Jane E. The Joys of the Long Trail: Three Women Adventure-Travellers in Canada at the Turn of the Century Ottawa, Canada: Carleton University, 1990.
Rosenblum, Naomi. A History of Women Photographers. New York, New York: Abbeville Press, 2000.
Roth, Mark J. "Mary Schaffer Warren: Explorer." Canadian Women Studies 2.3 (1980): 21-24.
Roth, Mark J. "The Photographs and Travels of Mary Schaffer Warren." Beaver 309.3 (Aug. 1978): 28-33.
Skidmore, Colleen. Searching for Mary Schaffer: Women Wilderness Photography. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 2017.
Smith, Cyndi. Off the Beaten Track: Women Adventurers and Mountaineers in Western Canada. Canmore, Alberta: Coyote Books, 1989.
Squire, Shelagh J. "In the Steps of 'Genteel Ladies': Women Tourists in the Canadian Rockies, 1885-1939 Canadian Geographer 39.1 (March 1995): 2-15.
Stearns, Sharon. Hunter of Peace. Victoria, British Columbia: J. Gordon Shillingford Publishers, 1993.
Wells, Liz. "Women and Photography." The Oxford Companion to the Photograph. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Documents rédigés par l'artiste
Schaffer, Mary T. S., E.J. Hart (ed). Hunter of Peace: Mary T.S. Schaffer's Old Indian Trails of the Canadian Rockies (With Her Heretofore Unpublished Account 1911 Expedition to Maligne Lake). Banff, Alberta: Whyte Foundation, 1980.
Schaffer, Mary T.S, Colleen Skidmore (ed). "Our Dear Mrs. Young." (1934) In: This Wild Spirit: Women in the Rock Mountains of Canada. Edmonton, Alberta: University of Alberta Press, 2006.
Schaffer, Mary T.S.. Old Indian Trails of the Canadian Rockies: Incidents of Camp and Trail Life, Covering Two Years' Exploration Through the Rocky Mountains of Canada. New York, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons London, 1911.
Schaffer, Mary T.S.. Untrodden Paths in the Canadian Rockies. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Soo Line, 1910-1920.
Schaffer, Mary T.S.. "Among the Sources of the Saskatchewan and Athabasca Rivers." Bulletin of the Geographical Society of Philadelphia 6.2 (April 1908).
Schaffer, Mary T.S., Colleen Skidmore (ed). "A Recently Explored Lake in the Rocky Range of Canada." (1909) In: This Wild Spirit: Women in the Rocky Mountains of Canada. Edmonton, Alberta: The University of Alberta Press, 2006.
Schaffer, Mary T.S., Colleen Skidmore (ed). "Breaking the Way." (1904) In: This Wild Spirit: Women in the Rocky Mountains of Canada. Edmonton, Alberta: The University of Alberta Press, 2006.
Schaffer, Mary T.S., Colleen Skidmore (ed). "Flora of the Saskatchewan and Athabasca River Tributaries." (1908) In: This Wild Spirit: Women in the Rocky Mountains of Canada. Edmonton, Alberta: The University of Alberta Press, 2006.
Schaffer, Mary T.S., Colleen Skidmore (ed). "Haunts of the Wild Flowers of the Canadian Rockies: Within Reach of the Canadian Pacific Railroad." (1911) In: This Wild Spirit: Women in the Rocky Mountains of Canada. Edmonton, Alberta: The University of Alberta Press, 2006.
Schaffer, Mary T.S., Colleen Skidmore (ed). "Untrodden Ways." (1908) In: This Wild Spirit: Women in the Rocky Mountain of Canada. Edmonton, Alberta: University of Alberta Press, 2006.

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