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HEWARD, Prudence

Montreal, Quebec, 1896
Los Angeles, United States, 1947
Biography synopsis
The sixth of eight children in a prosperous Montreal family, Efa Prudence Heward studied at the Art Association of Montreal with William Brymner, and for two summers with Maurice Cullen, sketching at Phillipsburg and Carillon. She exhibited her first work at the Art Association of Montreal Spring Exhibition in 1914. During the First World War, she and her mother worked with the Red Cross in London, England and following the war she continued her studies in Montreal with Randolph Hewton. She went to Paris to study at the Colarossi and in 1920 she returned to Montreal and joined the Beaver Hall Hill artists. She specialized in portrait and figure paintings. In 1927 one of her works was included in the Exposition d’art canadien at the Musée du Jeu de Paume in Paris. Two years later, she won first prize for "Girl on a Hill" at the Willingdon Arts Competition in 1929. In 1932 she had an exhibition at the galleries of W.W. Scott and Sons in Montreal, and again in 1934 with Sarah Robertson and Isabel McLaughlin. She was a member of the Canadian Group of Painters (1933; co-founder) and the Contemporary Arts Society (1939; founding member). A memorial exhibition was held at the National Gallery of Canada in 1948 and toured Canada.
Media used
Art Association of Montreal (under William Brymner)
Private study (under Maurice Cullen)
Private study (under Maurice Cullen; Randolph Hewton)
Académie Colarossi, Paris
Scandinavian Academy, Paris, 1930 - ?
Beaver Hall Group, 1920
Canadian Group of Painters, 1933
Contemporary Arts Society, 1939
File & Archive locations
Art Gallery of Ontario - Edward P. Taylor Research Library and Archives
Edmonton Art Gallery, AB - Library
London Public Library, ON
Montreal Museum of Fine Arts / Musée des Beaux-Arts de Montréal, QC
Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal, QC - Media Centre
Museum of Modern Art, NY
National Gallery of Canada, ON - Library and Archives
University of British Columbia - Fine Arts Library
Vancouver Art Gallery, BC - Library
Winnipeg Art Gallery, MA - Clara Lander Library
Library and Archives Canada / Bibliothèque et Archives Canada, ON
Canadian Women Artists History Initiative Documentation Centre, QC

Writings about
" ... Group Shows at Art Association." Gazette (Montreal) 5 Jan. 1946
"40 Local Painters Show in Exhibition." Gazette (Montreal) 4 Nov. 1936
"59 Paintings Auctioned for Refugees' Benefit Bring Total of $2459." Ottawa Citizen 4 Oct. 1940
"Art Exhibit Discussed: Private Showing Given Members of Windsor Association." Windsor Star 1 Dec. 1942
"Art Student's Work Exhibited." Herald (Montreal) 9 Apr. 1912
"C.A.C. Holding Exhibit At Dominion Gallery." Gazette (Montreal) 11 Nov. 1944
"Canadian Group Show at Art Association: Varied Offerings Occupy Two Main Galleries." Gazette (Montreal) 8 Jan. 1944
"Canadian Paintings Shown in New York." Gazette (Montreal) 2 Jun. 1945
"Canadian School is Well Represented at the Art Exhibition." Herald (Montreal) 25 Mar. 1922
"Coast to Coast in Art." Canadian Art 6.4 (1947): 178
"Contemporary Arts Society." Canadian Art 2.2 (Dec. 1944)
"Exhibits At Spring Show Now Open Number Nearly 500." Montreal Herald and Daily Telegraph 26 Mar. 1915
"Exposition des arts." La Patrie (Montreal) 26 Mar. 1915
"Fine Arts ... Paintings Are Shown By Canadian Group." Gazette (Montreal) 6 Feb. 1943
"Governor-General Arts Competition Results Announced." Montreal Star 4 May 1929
"Heward, Barbara Hamilton." Globe and Mail (Toronto) 11 Jul. 2003
"Meritorious Work At Spring Exhibit: Mural Paintings in R.C.A. Competition Part of Entries at Art Gallery." Gazette (Montreal) 28 Mar. 1924
"Modernistic in Tone." Bridle & Golfer (Oct. 1932)
"Montreal Artist Dies in California." Globe and Mail 21 Mar. 1947
"Montreal Artists Well Represented: High Standard Set at Spring Exhibition of Art Association." Gazette (Montreal) 16 Mar. 1923: 6
"Montreal Painters Opening Show Here: Exhibit by Members of the Contemporary Arts Society In Morgan's Gallery." Gazette (Montreal) 29 Nov. 1941: 21
"Nostalgic Homecoming." Gazette (Montreal) 31 Oct. 1964
"Oil Paintings Now on Display Here." Times-Globe (Saint John) 2 Nov. 1943: G1
"Paintings on View are Doubly Local." Gazette (Montreal) 7 Dec. 1932
"Picture Sale Aiding Orphans in Spain." Gazette (Montreal) 5 Mar. 1938
"Prominent Painters Contribute to Show." Gazette (Montreal) 10 Dec. 1938
"Prudence Heward Pictures Noted - Young Montreal Artists Shows at Ottawa Pictures of Vigor and Character." Leader (Regina) 4 Feb. 1930
"Prudence Heward Shows Paintings." Gazette (Montreal) 27 Apr. 1932
"Prudence Heward's Exceptional Talent." Standard (St. Catherine) 16 Jun. 1932
"Quelques héros de Louis Hémon en sculpture." La Presse (Montreal) 24 Mar. 1922
"Refreshing Art Exhibition On View at Gallery." Ottawa Evening Journal 19 Dec. 1942
"Spring Art Show has 478 Exhibits." Gazette (Montreal) 26 Mar. 1915
"The Contemporary Art Society." Daily Star (Montreal) 14 Nov. 1965: 20
"Women's Works on Exhibit." Standard (Montreal) 2 Apr. 1949
Adley, Allyson Sarah. Re-presenting Diasporic Difference: Images of Immigrant Women by Canadian Women Artists, 1912-1935 Montreal: Concordia University, 1999
Aitken, Kate. "Montreal Women's Art Chosen for NY Exhibit." Standard (Montreal) 29 Mar. 1947: 12
Art Gallery of Windsor. Prudence Heward and Friends: Art Gallery of Windsor July 15 through August 26th, 1979. Windsor: 1979
Asselin, Hedwidge, ed. Indédits de John Lyman. Montreal: Ministère des Affaires culturelles, Biblio. nationale Québec, 1980
Aylen, Marielle Barbara Desiree. Interfaces of the Portrait: Liminality and Dialogism in Canadian Women's Portraiture Between the Wars. Ottawa: Carleton University, 1996
Ayre, Robert. "Art News and Reviews: Evolution In Canadian Art Principal Message of Exhibition, 56th In Art Association's History." Standard (Montreal) 25 Mar. 1939: D14
Ayre, Robert. "Art Scene in Canada: Montreal." Canadian Art 22.1 (Jan-Feb. 1965): 65
Ayre, Robert. "Art: Two Exhibitions." Montrealer (Feb. 1937)
Ayre, Robert. "Arts Club Exhibition by Eleven Painters." Gazette (Montreal) 3 Feb. 1937
Ayre, Robert. "Canadian Group of Painters." The Canadian Forum (Toronto) 14.159 (Dec. 1933): 98-100
Ayre, Robert. "Choose your own jury! This year's spring show in Montreal." Canadian Art 2.4 (Apr - May 1945): 155-157
Ayre, Robert. "Significant Exhibition at Toronto by Diligent Canadian Group of Painters 'Bristling With Signs of the Times'." Standard (Toronto) 18 Nov. 1939: M6
Ayre, Robert. "The Canadian Group of Painters." Canadian Art 6.3 (Spring 1949): 98-102
Ballantyne, Michael. "La Femme Imagiste: The Women Painters of Quebec." Montreal Star Feb. 1965
Bell, H. Poynter. "What about Canadian Art?" The Passing Show (Montreal) 5.1 (Oct. 1930): 9-10
Bertrand, Magdeleine. Les Femmes artistes du Québec de 1875 à 1925. Montreal: Université de Montréal, 1990
Boutilier, Alicia Anna, et al.. A Vital Force: The Canadian Group of Painters. Kingston, Ontario: Agnes Etherington Art Centre, Queen's University, 2013., 2013
Braide, Janet and Nancy Parke-Taylor. Prudence Heward (1896-1947): An Introduction to her Life and Work. Montreal: Walter Klinkhoff Gallery, 1980
Buchanan, D.. "Naked Ladies." Canadian Forum 15.175 (Apr. 1935): 273
Buchanan, D.W. The Growth of Canadian Painting. Toronto: Collins, 1950: 54-56
Campbell, James D. "Chapter two: A Brief Sketch of the Life and Work of Prudence Heward." Figures and Grounds: The Work of Ross Heward/ Fonds et Figures: L'oeuvre de Ross Heward. Montreal: Galerie McClure, 2005
Canadian Group of Painters. Canadian Group of Painters, Exhibition 1942. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1942
Canadian Group of Painters. Canadian Group of Painters, Exhibition 1960. Montreal: 1960
Carr, Angela, ed. Raven Papers: Remembering Natalie Luckyj (1945-2002) Newcastle, ON: Penumbra Press, 2010
Contemporary Arts Society. Contemporary Arts Society: Drawings, Prints, Sculpture, December 1st to 31st, 1941. 1941
Cook, Sharon Anne, et al., eds. Framing Our Past: Canadian Women's History in the 20th Century. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2001
Dagg, Anne Innis. "What Happens to Women's Art?" Globe and Mail (Toronto) 4 Aug. 1984
Daniel, Pierre. "Pochades de Clarence Gagnon au Arts Club." La Presse (Montreal) 6 Feb. 1943
Davies, Blodwen. "Canadian Women of Brush and Chisel." Chatelaine 3 (Jun. 1930): 9, 42
Delisle, Jacques. "À la Dominion Gallery of Fine Arts." Le Devoir (Montreal) 21 Nov. 1944: 3
Demers, René. "Beaux Arts: Les théories mécaniques appliqués à l'art." La Patrie (Montreal) 17 Jan. 1934
Des Rochers Jacques, and Brian Foss, editors. 1920s Modernism in Montreal: The Beaver Hall Group. Une Modernite des Annees 1920 Montreal, Le Groupe de Beaver Hall Montreal, QC: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts ; Black Dog Publishing, 2015
Doyon, Charles. "C.A.S. 1944." Le Jour (Montreal) 18 Nov. 1944
Doyon, Charles. "La peinture feminine." Le Clairon (Sainte-Hyacinthe) ?
Doyon, Charles. "Les Arts: les dessins de CAS." Le Jour (Montreal) 10 Jan. 1942: 7
Duval, Paul. Canadian Impressionism. Toronto: Clarke, Irwin and Co, 1972
Duval, Paul. "Art and Artists: Prudence Heward Show." Toronto Saturday Night (24 Apr. 1948)
Emeny, Shirley Kathleen. Plurality and Agency : Portraits of Women by Prudence Heward Edmonton: University of Alberta, 1999
Farr, Dorothy and Luckyj, Natalie. From Women's Eyes: Women Painters in Canada. Kingston: Agnes Etherington Art Centre, 1975
Ferrari, Pepita & Buffie, Erna. By Woman's Hand. Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 1994
Ferron-Desautels, Marie. "Une Chambre à soi dans la maison familiale: l’atelier de Prudence Heward (1896-1947)." Histoire des Ateliers d'artistes au Québec (1800-1980) 4 Dec. 2019
Fleisher, Pat. "Love or Art." Art Magazine 5.15 (Fall 1973): 19-20
Fortin, Nathalie. La Place des Femmes dans la Société d'Art Contemporain: Montréal, 1939-1948. Montreal, QC: UQàM, M.A. thesis, 2007
Girard, Henri. "Le Salon du Printemps." Le Canada (Montreal) 15 Mar. 1939: 2
Grafftey, Heward. "Chapter four: Prudence Heward." Portraits from a Life Montreal: Véhicule Press, 1996: 67-78
Grandbois Michèle et al. The Nude in Modern Canadian Art 1920-1950. Quebec, Qc.: Musée National Des Beaux-Arts Du Quèbec, 2009
Greenberg, Reesa. "Further Comments on N. Luckyj's Publication." Journal of Canadian Art History 9.2 (1986): 207-208
Grier, E. Wyly. "The Forty-Ninth Exhibition of the Royal Canadian Academy." Journal of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada 5.1 (Jan. 1928): 19-24
Gwyn, Sandra. Women in the Arts in Canada. Ottawa: Royal Commission on the Status of Women, 1971
Holgate, Edwin. "Prudence Heward." Canadian Art 2.4 (Summer 1947): 161
Housser, Yvonne McKague. "Canadian Group of Painters - 1944." Canadian Art 1.4 (Apr-May 1944): 142-147
Hubbard, R. H. National Gallery of Canada, Catalogue of Paintings and Sculpture, Volume 3. Ottawa: Published for the Trustees by University of Toronto Press, 1960
Huot, Maurice. "Peintres féminins." La Patrie (Montreal) 6 Apr. 1949: 16
Jackson, A.Y. A Painter's Country. Toronto: Clarke Irwin, 1972
Jackson, A.Y. "A Montreal Painter, Paintings by Prudence Heward Placed on Exhibition in Montreal." Star (Montreal) 24 Apr. 1932
Kruschen, Franziska. "Mabel Killam Day." Atlantis 20.1 (1995): 139
Laberge, Albert. "Nouvelle visite au salon de l'academie royale canadienne." La Presse (Montreal) 6 Dec. 1929
Lehmann, Henry. "Special to the Gazette." Gazette (Montreal) 30 Jan. 2005
Lerner, Loren. "From Victorian Girl Reader to Modern Women Artist: Reading and Seeing in the paintings of the Canadian Girl by William Brymner, Emily Coonan, and Prudence Heward." Canadian Children's Literature 33.2 (2007): 19-50
Lismer, Arthur. "Works by Three Canadian Women." Montreal Star 9 May 1934
Luckyj, Natalie. Expressions of Will: The Art of Prudence Heward. Kingston: Agnes Etherington Art Centre, 1986
Luckyj, Natalie. Visions and Victories: 10 Canadian Women Artists 1914-1945. London: London Regional Art Gallery, 1983
Lyman, John. "Art." Montrealer 1 Feb. 1940
Lyman, John. "Canadian Art Show in U.S. Is Best Yet Sent Abroad." Standard (Montreal) 24 Oct. 1942
MacDonald, Colin S. The Dictionary of Canadian Artists. (Volumes 1-8 by Colin S. MacDonald, and volume 9 by Anne Newlands and Judith Parker) Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 2009.
MacTavish, Newton. Ars Longa. Toronto: The Ontario Publishing Co., 1925
McCullough, Norah. The Beaver Hall Group. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1966
McInnes, G. Campbell. "World of Art." Toronto Saturday Night (17 Apr. 1937)
McInnes, G. Campbell. “World of Art.” Saturday Night (18 Jan. 1936): 4
Meadowcroft, Barbara. Painting Friends: The Beaver Hall Women Painters. Montreal: Vehicule Press, 1999
Millar, Joyce. "The Beaver Hall Group: Painting in Montreal 1920-1940." Woman's Art Journal 13.1 (Spring-Summer 1992): 3-9
Milroy, Sarah, editor. Uninvited: Canadian Women Artists in the Modern Movement. Vancouver: Figure 1, 2021
Morgan, Henry & Co. Exposition d'Art Soviétique. Montreal: Unknown, 1935
Musée d'Art Moderne Paris. Exposition Internationale d'Art Moderne. Paris: Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'éducation, la culture, 1946
Museu nacional de belas artes. Pintura Canadense Contemporarnea. Rio De Janeiro: Museu nacional de belas artes, 1944
National Gallery of Canada. Catalogue of Paintings and Sculpture: Canadian School. Ottawa: Trustees of the National Gallery of Canada, 1957
National Gallery of Canada. Exhibition of Contemporary Canadian Painting. New York: Carnegie Corporation, 1936
National Gallery of Canada. Memorial Exhibition: Prudence Heward 1896-1947. Ottawa: 1948
National Gallery of Canada. Sarah Robertson, 1891-1948: Memorial Exhibition. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1951
Nelson, Charmaine. Through An-Other's Eyes: White Canadian Artists - Black Female Subjects. Oshawa: The Robert McLaughlin Gallery, 1998
Newlands, Anne. Canadian Art: From its Beginnings to 2000 Richmond Hill, Ontario: Firefly Books, 2000
Nicol, Pegi. "The Passionate Snow of Yesteryear." The Canadian Forum 16.183 (April 1936): 21.
Ontario Provincial Library Service. Ontario Library Review. Toronto: Provincial Library Service, 1940
Pearce, Lynne. "The Viewer as Producer: British and Canadian Feminists Reading Prudence Heward's 'Women.'" RACAR 25.1-2 (1998): 94-103
Powell, Grace. Challenging the Status Quo: Prudence Heward's Portrayals of Canadian Women from the 1920s to the 1940s. (M.A. Thesis) Montreal, QC: Concordia University, 2008
Reference Division, McPherson Library, compilers. Creative Canada: A Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Creative and Performing Arts. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, University of Victoria, 1971
Reynald. "Le 50e salon du printemps." La Presse (Montreal) 17 Mar. 1933
Reynald. "Nos aspirants au modernisme résolu: La Société d'Art Contemporain expose aux nouvelles galeries Frank Stevens." La Presse (Montreal) 23 Dec. 1939: 43
Robson, Albert Henry. Canadian Landscape Painters. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1932
Saltmarche, Kenneth. "New Gallery Painting." Star (Windsor) 21 Jul. 1962
Sangster, Dorothy. "Three Shows Exhibited at Gallery." Unknown (Montreal) 6 Feb. 1943
Skelly, Julia. Prudence Heward: Life & Work Toronto: Art Canada Institute, 2015
Smither, Devon. “Defying Convention: The Female Nude in Canadian Painting and Photography during the Interwar Period.” vol. 32, no. 1, 2019, pp. 77–93 Journal of Historical Sociology 32.1 (2019): 77-93
St. Jean, France. La Réception critique dans la presse montréalaise francophone des décennies 1930 et 1940 de l'oeuvre de cinq femmes artistes: Prudence Heward, Lilias Torrance Newton, Anne Savage, Marian Scott et ... Montreal: Université du Québec à Montréal, 1999
Tippett, Maria. By a Lady. Toronto: Viking, 1992
Trepanier Esther. Peinture et Modernite au Quebec 1919-1939 Montreal: Editions Nota bene, 1998
Varley, Christopher. La Société d'art contemporain, Montréal 1939-1948. Edmonton: Edmonton Art Gallery, 1980
Walters, Evelyn. PRUDENCE HEWARD: Canadian Modernist Painter. Manitoba: FRIESENPRESS, [S.l.], 2022
Walters, Evelyn. The Beaver Hall Group and its Legacy. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2017
Walters, Evelyn. The Women of Beaver Hall: Canadian Modernist Painters. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2005
Wells, Kenneth. "Canadian Artists: Prudence Heward." Telegram (Toronto) 2 Jun. 1934
Wylie, Liz. "Expressions of Will: The Art of Prudence Heward by Natalie Luckyj." Journal of Canadian Art History 9.2 (1986): 205-207

Full text pdfs of exhibition reviews
Art Association of Montreal Annual Spring Exhibition: (Montreal, ) "Variety in Spring Picture Exhibit. Private View Opened 31st Spring Show at Art Gallery Last Night. Works Number Over 400. Sanity, Sincerity and Progress Characterize Majority of Pictures-Various Branches Well Represented."  Gazette (Montreal)  .  p.11.   Full-text pdf
Art Association of Montreal Annual Spring Exhibition: (Montreal, ) "Spring Art Show Has 478 Exhibits. Even Excellence Dominant Note at Art Association Which Opened Last Night. Nothing Very Daring."  Gazette (Montreal)  .  p.5.   Full-text pdf
Art Association of Montreal Annual Spring Exhibition: (Montreal, ) "Artist's Efforts Reach High Level."  Gazette (Montreal)  .  p.6.   Full-text pdf
Art Association of Montreal Annual Spring Exhibition: (Montreal, ) "Exhibits Drawn From Wide Area. Growing Importance of Spring Art Exhibition More Generally Recognized."  Gazette (Montreal)  .  p.5.   Full-text pdf
Art Association of Montreal Annual Spring Exhibition: (Montreal, ) "Quelques heros de Louis Hemon en sculpture. Maria Chapdelaine, son père et sa mère figurent au Salon des Artistes. Oeuvres de Suzor Cote."  La Presse (Montreal)  .  p.12.   Full-text pdf
Art Association of Montreal Annual Spring Exhibition: (Montreal, ) "Canadian School is Well Represented at the Art Exhibition."  Montreal Herald  .  p.10.   Full-text pdf
Art Association of Montreal Annual Spring Exhibition: (Montreal, ) "Montreal Artists Well Represented. High Standard Set at Spring Exhibition of Art Association."  Gazette (Montreal)  .  p.6.   Full-text pdf
Art Association of Montreal Annual Spring Exhibition: (Montreal, ) "Meritorious Work at Spring Exhibit. Mural Paintings in R.C.A. Competition Part of Entries at Art Gallery."  Gazette (Montreal)  .  p.15.   Full-text pdf
Royal Canadian Academy Annual Exhibition: (Montreal, ) "R.C.A. Exhibition Nearing Jubilee. Much Meritorious Work Shown, but Younger Painters Tend to Shallowness and Emptiness."  Gazette (Montreal)  .  p.7.   Full-text pdf
Royal Canadian Academy Annual Exhibition: (Montreal, ) Albert Laberge.  "Appréciation de quelques toiles du Salon des artistes Canadiens."  La Presse (Montreal)  .  p.52.   Full-text pdf
Royal Canadian Academy Annual Exhibition: (Montreal, ) "The Royal Academy of Arts at Montreal. Stylists and Conventionalists Draw Contradictory Opinions."  Canadian Homes and Gardens  .  5:1: pp.64,66.   Full-text pdf
Royal Canadian Academy Annual Exhibition: (Toronto, ) Jeanne Adeney.  "Art Notes."  Canadian Bookman  .  p.25.   Full-text pdf
Ontario Society of Artists Annual Exhibition: (Toronto, ) Constance C. Mackay.  "Studies of French Gothic. Van Veen Collection and O.S.A. Show at Toronto Art Gallery."  Toronto Saturday Night  .  p.3.   Full-text pdf
Royal Canadian Academy Annual Exhibition: (Montreal, ) Albert Laberge.  "Nouvelle visite au Salon de l'Académie Royle Canadienne. Remarquables scènes de la mer par Rita Mount, magistral portrait de femme par Wayman Adams, et scenes des champs par James Graham."  La Presse (Montreal)  .  p.17.   Full-text pdf
Royal Canadian Academy Annual Exhibition: (Montreal, ) "Le salon d'automne."  Revue Populaire  .  23.1: PP.7-10.   Full-text pdf
Royal Canadian Academy Annual Exhibition: (Montreal, ) A. V. Thomson.  "The Academy Show."  Canadian Forum  .  pp.128-130.   Full-text pdf
Royal Canadian Academy Annual Exhibition: (Montreal, ) H. Poynter Bell.  "The Fifty-First Exhibition of the Royal Canadian Academy."  Royal Architectural Institute of Canada  .  pp.29-33.   Full-text pdf
Art Association of Montreal Annual Spring Exhibition: (Montreal, ) Reynald.  "Le 50e salon du printemps. L'exposition la plus nombreuse et la plus diverse jamais réunie. Lentes orientations vers le colorisme. La part des femmes. Les Canadiens-français."  La Presse  .  p.8.   Full-text pdf
Royal Canadian Academy Annual Exhibition: (, ) Fred H. Brigden.  "The Fifty-Seventh Annual Exhibition of the Royal Academy of Arts."  Royal Architectural Institute of Canada  .  13.12: pp.216-223.   Full-text pdf
Art Association of Montreal Annual Spring Exhibition: (Montreal, ) Henri Girard..  "La vie artistique. Le salon du printemps."  Le Canada (Montreal)  .  p.2.   Full-text pdf
Art Association of Montreal Annual Spring Exhibition: (Montreal, ) Robert Ayre.  "Evolution In Canadian Art Principle Message of Exhibition. 56th In Art Association's History."  Standard (Montreal)  .  p.20.   Full-text pdf

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