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HOPKINS, Frances Anne

England, 1836
England, 1919
Biography synopsis
Frances Anne Hopkins (nee Beechey) was probably taught painting at home, because she was an accomplished artist by the time of her marriage in 1858, at the age of 20, to Edward Martin Hopkins (1820-1893), a widower with three children, who was the Secretary to the Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, Sir George Simpson. Hopkins moved to Canada with her husband in the same year as her marriage, settling in Lachine, Quebec, where she had two sons by 1861. In that year, the couple and their children moved to a house on Cote des Neiges, near Montreal, where they had one more child by 1863, and the family returned to England in 1870. Hopkins continued to paint Canadian subjects for the rest of her life. Her artistic output can be found in such institutions as the Glenbow Museum, Calgary; Royal Ontario Museum and Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto; McCord Museum, Montreal; Minnesota Historical Society, Minneapolis, Minnesota; and elsewhere. She exhibited several of her paintings at the Royal Academy in London, England upon her return there.
Media used
File & Archive locations
Canadian Women Artists History Initiative Documentation Centre, QC
Library and Archives Canada / Bibliothèque et Archives Canada, ON
University of British Columbia - Rare Books and Special Collections
Brooklyn Museum, NY
Frick Art Reference Library, NY
Alberta Culture and Community Spirit - Arts Branch
Art Gallery of Ontario - Edward P. Taylor Research Library and Archives
Hamilton Public Library, ON - Local History and Archives Department
London Public Library, ON
Montreal Museum of Fine Arts / Musée des Beaux-Arts de Montréal, QC
National Gallery of Canada, ON - Library and Archives
University of British Columbia - Fine Arts Library
Vancouver Art Gallery, BC - Library
Winnipeg Art Gallery, MA - Clara Lander Library

Writings about
"Exhibition of the Royal Academy, Sixth Article." Times (Montreal) 11 Jun. 1869: 12.
"Femmes peintres canadiennes." Le Devoir (Montreal) 23 Mar. 1948: 6.
"Frances Anne Hopkins: She Rode with the Voyageurs and Painted What She Saw." Wooden Canoe 83 (Oct. 1997): 12-13.
"Mrs. MacDougall at the Gallery." Port Hope Guide 3 Dec. 1975.
"Tea Civic Ball to the Military." Montreal Herald 30 May 1863.
"The Ball." Gazette (Montreal) 30 May 1863.
"The Royal Academy Exhibition, Third Article." Times (Montreal) 18 May 1870.
"The Royal Academy" The Art Journal 13 (1874): 161-166.
"Water Colors." Daily Witness (Montreal) 10 Mar. 1870.
Adamson, Jeremy. From Ocean to Ocean: Nineteenth Century Watercolour Painting in Canada. Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1978.
Allodi, Mary. Canadian Watercolours and Drawings in the Royal Ontario Museum. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1974.
Art Association of Montreal. Sixth Exhibition: Catalogue of Oil and Water Colour Paintings, Statuary, Bronzes, and other Works of Art, 8th March 1870. Montreal: 1870.
Baele, Nancy. "Early Artist Gets her Due in Solo Show" Ottawa Citizen 30 Aug. 1990.
Baile de Laperriere, Charles, ed. The Society of Women Artists Exhibitors, 1855-1996. Calne, Wiltshire, England: Hilmarton Manor Press, 1996.
Benezit, Emmanuel. Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des peintres, sculpteurs, dessinateurs et graveurs. Paris: Librairie Grund, 1976.
Berry, Virginia G. A Boundless Horizon: Visual Records of Exploration and Settlement in the Manitoba Region, 1624-1874. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 1983.
Burant, Jim. "Evidence points to D. A. Gillies as central figure in canoe project." Ottawa Citizen 28 Nov. 1997.
Chalmers, John W. "Frances Ann Hopkins: The Lady Who Painted Canoes." Canadian Geographical Journal 83.1 (1971): 18-27.
Clark, Janet E. and Robert Stacey. Frances Anne Hopkins, 1838-1919: Canadian Scenery. Thunder Bay: Thunder Bay Art Gallery, 1990.
Conde, Valerie. "Pioneer With a Palette." Windsor Daily Star 19 Jun. 1948.
Conlogue, Ray. "Our Family Album." Globe and Mail (Toronto) 27 May 2002.
Demers, René. "Beaux Arts: Les théories mécaniques appliqués à l'art." La Patrie (Montreal) 17 Jan. 1934.
Farr, Dorothy and Luckyj, Natalie. From Women's Eyes: Women Painters in Canada. Kingston: Agnes Etherington Art Centre, 1975.
Feltes, N. "Voy(ag)euse: Gender and Gaze in the Canoe Paintings of Frances Anne Hopkins." Ariel, a Review of International English Literature 24.4 (Oct 1993): 7-24.
Ferrari, Pepita. The Petticoat Expeditions [Part 2] Montreal: National Film Board of Canada, 1997.
Franks, C. E. S. The Canoe and White Water: From Essential to Sport. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1977.
Galbraith, John S. The Little Emperor: Governor Simpson of the Hudson's Bay Company. Toronto: Macmillan, 1976.
Galbraith, John S. "The Enigma of Sir George Simpson." Beaver 306 (Spring 1976): 4-9.
Grant, George Munro; illustrated by Dorothy Stevens. Ocean To Ocean: Sandford Fleming's Expedition Through Canada in 1872. Toronto: Radisson Society of Canada, 1925 [revised edition].
Graves, Algernon. A Dictionary of Artists Who Have Exhibited Works in the Principal London Exhibitions from 1760-1893. New York: Lennox Hill, 1970.
Graves, Algernon. Royal Academy Exhibitors 1905-1970. Wilshire, England: Himalton Manor Press, Vol. 2, 1987.
Graves, Algernon. The Royal Academy of Arts: A Complete Dictionary of Contributors and Their Works from its Foundations in 1769 to 1904. London: Henry Graves & Co. and George Bell & Sons, 1905.
Griffin, Andrew. "Galleries: Canadian Scenery/Le paysage canadien." Hill Times (Ottawa) 6 Sept. 1990.
Guillet, Edwin C. "Old Times in Ontario: Her Paintings Show Voyageurs' Life." Daily Star (Toronto) 13 Dec. 1958.
Halil, Karen. "Petticoats and canoes: Victorian Artist Frances Hopkins Finally gets her Due." Alberta Report/Western Report (5 Nov. 1990): 362.
Hamelin, Christine. "Women of Character: Frances Anne Hopkins (1838-1919): Recording Canada's Past." City Woman Magazine (Spring 2001): 42.
Harper, J. Russell. A Century of Colonial Painting. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1964.
Harper, J. Russell. Early Painters and Engravers in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1970.
Harper, J. Russell. Painting in Canada: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966, 2nd edition 1977.
Hislop, R. Auction Prices of 19th Century Artists. Surrey, England: Wyebridge, Vol.1, 1982.
Hopkins, Elisabeth Margaret. "Grandmama" Beaver 307.3 (Winter 1976): 25-29.
Hume, Christopher. "Slice of our history on display." Toronto Star 24 Apr. 1990.
Huneault, Kristina. I'm Not Myself at All: Women, Art, and Subjectivity in Canada. Montreal; Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2018.
Huneault, Kristina. "Placing Frances Hopkins: A British Born Artist in Colonial Canada." Local/global : Women Artists in the Nineteenth Century. Editors Deborah Cherry and Janice Helland Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate, 2006: 179-200.
Johnson, Alice M. "Edward and Frances Hopkins of Montreal." Beaver 302.2 (1971): 4-17.
Johnson, Alice M.. "The Hopkins Book of Canoes" Beaver (Autumn 1971): 54-58.
Johnson, Jane. Works Exhibited at the Royal Society of British Artists 1824-1893 and the New English Art Club 1888-1917. Suffolk, England: Antique Collectors' Club, 1975, reprint 1987.
Johnson, Jane and A. Greutzer. Dictionary of British Artists, 1880-1940. Woodbridge: Antique Collectors' Club, 1976.
Laing, Blair. Memoirs of an Art Dealer. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982.
Laviolette, Mary-Beth. "Frances Anne Hopkins: Interview with Janet E. Clark." Artichoke 2.1 (1991): 8-9.
MacDonald, Colin S. The Dictionary of Canadian Artists. (Volumes 1-8 by Colin S. MacDonald, and volume 9 by Anne Newlands and Judith Parker) Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 2009.
Martel, Marthe. "Nouvelle France Aujourd'hui Québec: Des illustrations d'expéditions en canot offertes à la population." Le Soleil du St-Laurent (Valleyfield) 17 Aug. 1983.
Mays, John Bentley. "Engaging celebrations of Victorian Canada." Globe and Mail (Toronto) 25 Apr. 1990.
McKendry, Blake. A to Z of Canadian Art: Artists and Art Terms. Kingston: B. McKendry, 1997.
Merritt, Susan E. "Frances Anne Hopkins (1838-1919)." Her Story II: Women from Canada's Past. St. Catharines: Vanwell Publishing, 1995: 48-57.
Miller, Audrey. "Artist in residence in Lachine." Messenger (Lachine, QC) 10 Apr. 1974.
Miller, Audrey. "Frances Anne Hopkins, 1838-1919." Lives and Works of the Canadian Artists. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1977.
Murray, Joan. The Last Buffalo: The Story of Frederick Arthur Verner, Painter of the Canadian West. Toronto: Pagurian Press, 1987.
National Archives of Canada. The Painted Past: Selected Paintings from the Picture Division of the Public Archives of Canada. Ottawa: National Archives of Canada, 1987.
Newlands, Anne. Canadian Art: From its Beginnings to 2000. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Firefly Books, 2000.
Nunn, Pamela Gerrish. "Ruskin's Patronage of Women Artists." Woman's Art Journal (Fall/Winter 1981/82): 8-13.
Nute, Grace Lee. Voyageurs' Artist Beaver 218 (June 1947): 32-37.
Petteys, Chris, et al. Dictionary of Women Artists: An International Dictionary of Women Artists Born Before 1900. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1985.
Pomeroy Jordana. "We Got Upon our Elephant & Went Out After Subjects": Capturing the World in Watercolor." Intrepid Women: Victorian Artists Travel. Edited by Jordana Pomeroy. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005: 39-50.
Pomeroy, Jordana. "Picturing Their Empire: Victorian Women Artists Abroad." Art and the British Empire London: Tate Gallery, 2001.
Rand, Margaret. "Rediscovering Voyageur Artist Frances Hopkins." Canadian Geographic 102.3 (1982): 22-29.
Reid, Dennis. Collector's Canada Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1988.
Roberts, Kenneth G., and Philip Shackleton. The Canoe: A History of the Craft from Panama to the Arctic. Toronto: Macmillan, 1983.
Robertson, Sheila. "Painting More than Genteel Hobby: Women emerge from the Home Front." Star Phoenix (Saskatoon) 3 Jul. 1993: D7.
Royal Academy of Arts. Exhibitions 1905-1970: A Dictionary of Artists and their Work in the Summer Exhibitions of the Royal Academy of Arts. East Ardsley: EP Publishing, 1982.
Schutlze, Thomas. Frances Anne Hopkins: Images from Canada Manotick, Ont:: Penumbra Press, 2008.
Sinclair, Catherine. "A Strangely Forgotten Frontier Artist..." Chatelaine (Dec. 1961): 42-43, 73-74.
Thieme, Ulrich and Felix Becker. Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Leipzig, Germany: E. A. Seamans, 1962.
Tippett, Maria. By a Lady. Toronto: Viking, 1992.
Tousley, Nancy. "Paintings capture Canada's voyageur era." Calgary Herald 29 Nov. 1990.
Waters, Grant M. Dictionary of British Artists Working 1900-1950. Eastbourne: Eastbourne Fine Arts Publications, 1975.
Weiler, Robert. Canoe Woman: The Story of Frances Anne Hopkins. Washington, D.C.: Robert Weiler, 1994.
Williamson, Moncrieff. Through Canadian Eyes: Trends and Influences in Canadian Art: 1815-1965. Calgary: Glenbow-Alberta Institute, 1976.
Winnipeg Art Gallery. The View From Here: Selections from the Canadian Historical Collection. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 2000.
Wood, Christopher. The Dictionary of Victorian Painters. Woodbridge: Antique Collectors' Club, 1978.
Yeldham, Charlotte. Women Artists in Nineteenth-Century France and England. New York & London: Garland Publishing, Vol. 1, 1984.

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